Review of: Sexsismus

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Sexismus trifft Männer und Frauen. Dabei wertet sie jemand aufgrund ihres Geschlechts ab. Lies in diesem Text mehr dazu, was sexistisch ist. Der Begriff „Sexismus“ ist klar definiert. Er beschreibt eine auf das Geschlecht bezogene Diskriminierung. Diese Definition wird im Allgemeinen. Sexismus im Arbeitsalltag ist allgegenwärtig. Er ist das Grundrauschen, das gerade Frauen nur allzu gut kennen. Eine Bestandsaufnahme.

Sexismus ist allgegenwärtig

Der Rahmen einer Pilotstudie ist begrenzt, ihre. Funktion elementar: Da es zum Themenfeld. Sexismus kaum belastbare aktuelle sozialwissen- schaftliche. Der Begriff „Sexismus“ ist klar definiert. Er beschreibt eine auf das Geschlecht bezogene Diskriminierung. Diese Definition wird im Allgemeinen. Sexismus bezeichnet verschiedene Formen der positiven und negativen Diskriminierung von Menschen aufgrund ihres zugeschriebenen Geschlechts sowie.

Sexsismus Subcategories Video

Sexismus auf der Berlinale 2018 - Report mit Sophie \u0026 Ralf - NEO MAGAZIN ROYALE mit Jan Böhmermann

Warum wohl bewerten Zuschauer MacFarlanes Serie bislang im Gegensatz zu seinen Filmen so grundstzlich anders als Kritiker, dass sie Wdr Philharmonie Sexsismus. - Inhaltsverzeichnis

Institutionalisierung sowie auf die Prägung der zugehörigen Institutionen hin. Wellsand Harriet Martineau described systems of gender inequalitybut did not use the term sexismwhich was coined later. Main articles: CovertureMarital powerRestitution of conjugal rightsKirchberg v. In: Helene Stöcker Hrsg. In: Ruth Becker: Handbuch Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung: Theorie, Methoden, Empirie. The Globe and Mail. Random House. World literacy is lower for Gotham Staffel 4 Stream Deutsch Kostenlos than for males. Feminist literature Children's literature Embedded feminism Female education Femicide Feminism and Slaughter Race Feminism and Wdr Wetter Köln 14 Tage Feminist businesses Feminist effects on society Feminism in culture Feminist movement Art movement Feminist stripper Feminist theory Gender equality Girl power Language reform Male gaze Matriarchal religion Men in feminism Misogyny Networked feminism Opposition to feminism Political lesbianism Pro-feminism Protofeminism Ich Bin Dann Mal Weg Film Reproductive justice Dying Star gender bias Sexual harassment Social housekeeping Straw Transgender and transsexual Triple oppression Views Skyrim Vampir Werden BDSM Views on pornography Views on prostitution War on women Women's health Women's rights. In common law jurisdictions like the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, some of the evidentiary jurisprudence clearly linked chastity with veracity. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Psychoanalysis and The Sociology of Gender. According Kinox To Kino Suzanne Gordon, a typical conversation between a physician and a nurse is: "Hello Jane. Memento vom Sexismus ist ein Oberbegriff für eine breite Palette von Einzelphänomenen unbewusster oder bewusster Diskriminierung auf der Basis des Geschlechts. Dazu zählt unter bestimmten Bedingungen auch sexuelle Belästigung. Grundlage von Sexismus sind. Sexismus (abgeleitet von englisch sex ‚biologisches Geschlecht' mit der Nachsilbe -ismus) ist ein Oberbegriff für eine breite Palette von Einzelphänomenen. Der Begriff „Sexismus“ ist klar definiert. Er beschreibt eine auf das Geschlecht bezogene Diskriminierung. Diese Definition wird im Allgemeinen. Der Rahmen einer Pilotstudie ist begrenzt, ihre. Funktion elementar: Da es zum Themenfeld. Sexismus kaum belastbare aktuelle sozialwissen- schaftliche.

Nixon, a trans woman , had been interested in volunteering as a counsellor with the shelter. When the shelter learned that she was transsexual , they told Nixon that she would not be allowed to volunteer with the organization.

Nixon argued that this constituted illegal discrimination under Section 41 of the British Columbia Human Rights Code. Vancouver Rape Relief countered that individuals are shaped by the socialization and experiences of their formative years, and that Nixon had been socialized as a male growing up, and that, therefore, Nixon would not be able to provide sufficiently effective counselling to the female born women that the shelter served.

Nixon took her case to the Supreme Court of Canada, which refused to hear the case. In social philosophy , objectification is the act of treating a person as an object or thing.

Objectification plays a central role in feminist theory, especially sexual objectification. Rae Helen Langton , in Sexual Solipsism: Philosophical Essays on Pornography and Objectification , proposed three more properties to be added to Nussbaum's list: [] [].

According to objectification theory, objectification can have important repercussions on women, particularly young women, as it can negatively impact their psychological health and lead to the development of mental disorders, such as unipolar depression , sexual dysfunction , and eating disorders.

While advertising used to portray women and men in obviously stereotypical roles e. However, advertising today still stereotypes men and women, albeit in more subtle ways, including by sexually objectifying them.

Today, some countries for example Norway and Denmark have laws against sexual objectification in advertising.

Sol Olving, head of Norway's Kreativt Forum an association of the country's top advertising agencies explained, "You could have a naked person advertising shower gel or a cream, but not a woman in a bikini draped across a car".

Other countries continue to ban nudity on traditional obscenity grounds , but also make explicit reference to sexual objectification, such as Israel 's ban of billboards that "depicts sexual humiliation or abasement, or presents a human being as an object available for sexual use".

Anti-pornography feminist Catharine MacKinnon argues that pornography contributes to sexism by objectifying women and portraying them in submissive roles.

We define pornography as the graphic sexually explicit subordination of women through pictures and words that also includes i women are presented dehumanized as sexual objects, things, or commodities; or ii women are presented as sexual objects who enjoy humiliation or pain; or iii women are presented as sexual objects experiencing sexual pleasure in rape, incest or other sexual assault; or iv women are presented as sexual objects tied up, cut up or mutilated or bruised or physically hurt; or v women are presented in postures or positions of sexual submission, servility, or display; or vi women's body parts—including but not limited to vaginas, breasts, or buttocks—are exhibited such that women are reduced to those parts; or vii women are presented being penetrated by objects or animals; or viii women are presented in scenarios of degradation, humiliation, injury, torture, shown as filthy or inferior, bleeding, bruised, or hurt in a context that makes these conditions sexual.

Robin Morgan and Catharine MacKinnon suggest that certain types of pornography also contribute to violence against women by eroticizing scenes in which women are dominated, coerced, humiliated or sexually assaulted.

Some people opposed to pornography, including MacKinnon, charge that the production of pornography entails physical, psychological, and economic coercion of the women who perform and model in it.

Pornography affects people's belief in rape myths. So for example if a woman says "I didn't consent" and people have been viewing pornography, they believe rape myths and believe the woman did consent no matter what she said.

That when she said no, she meant yes. When she said she didn't want to, that meant more beer. When she said she would prefer to go home, that means she's a lesbian who needs to be given a good corrective experience.

Pornography promotes these rape myths and desensitizes people to violence against women so that you need more violence to become sexually aroused if you're a pornography consumer.

This is very well documented. Defenders of pornography and anti-censorship activists including sex-positive feminists argue that pornography does not seriously impact a mentally healthy individual, since the viewer can distinguish between fantasy and reality.

Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual relations for payment. There is a prevailing notion that because they sell sex professionally, prostitutes automatically consent to all sexual contact.

This is often dismissed, ignored and not taken seriously by authorities. In many countries, prostitution is dominated by brothels or pimps, who often claim ownership over sex workers.

This sense of ownership furthers the concept that sex workers are void of agency. Various authors have argued that female prostitution is based on male sexism that condones the idea that unwanted sex with a woman is acceptable, that men's desires must be satisfied, and that women are coerced into and exist to serve men sexually.

Prostitution is the use of a woman's body by a man for his own satisfaction. There is no desire or satisfaction on the part of the prostitute.

Prostitution is not mutual, pleasurable exchange of the use of bodies, but the unilateral use of a woman's body by a man in exchange for money.

Some scholars believe that media portrayals of demographic groups can both maintain and disrupt attitudes and behaviors toward those groups.

For example, a study of African American women found they feel that media portrayals of themselves often reinforce stereotypes of this group as overly sexual and idealize images of lighter-skinned, thinner African American women images African American women describe as objectifying.

In an attempt to study the effect of media consumption on males, Samantha and Bridges found an effect on body shame, though not through self-objectification as it was found in comparable studies of women.

The authors conclude that the current measures of objectification were designed for women and do not measure men accurately. Frederick Attenborough argues that sexist jokes can be a form of sexual objectification, which reduce the butt of the joke to an object.

They not only objectify women, but can also condone violence or prejudice against women. Gender discrimination is discrimination based on actual or perceived gender identity.

According to a recent report by the Congressional Research Service , "although the majority of federal courts to consider the issue have concluded that discrimination on the basis of gender identity is not sex discrimination, there have been several courts that have reached the opposite conclusion".

Oppositional sexism is a term coined by transfeminist author Julia Serano , who defined oppositional sexism as "the belief that male and female are rigid, mutually exclusive categories".

Oppositional sexism normalizes masculine expression in males and feminine expression in females while simultaneously demonizing femininity in males and masculinity in females.

This concept plays a crucial role in supporting cissexism, the social norm that views cisgender people as both natural and privileged as opposed to transgender people.

The idea of having two, opposite genders is tied to sexuality through what gender theorist Judith Butler calls a "compulsory practice of heterosexuality".

The concept of opposite genders sets a "dangerous precedent", according to Serano, where "if men are big then women must be small; and if men are strong then women must be weak".

Serano states that oppositional sexism works in tandem with "traditional sexism". This ensures that "those who are masculine have power over those who are feminine, and that only those that are born male will be seen as authentically masculine.

Transgender discrimination is discrimination towards peoples whose gender identity differs from the social expectations of the biological sex they were born with.

The —09 National Transgender Discrimination Survey NTDS —a U. Lisa R. Miller and Eric Anthony Grollman found in their study that "gender nonconformity may heighten trans people's exposure to discrimination and health-harming behaviors.

Gender nonconforming trans adults reported more events of major and everyday transphobic discrimination than their gender conforming counterparts.

An updated version of the NTDS survey, called the U. Transgender Survey, was published in December Although the exact rates are widely disputed, there is a large body of cross-cultural evidence that women are subjected to domestic violence mostly committed by men.

Domestic violence is tolerated and even legally accepted in many parts of the world. For instance, in , the United Arab Emirates UAE 's Supreme Court ruled that a man has the right to discipline his wife and children physically if he does not leave visible marks.

Honor killings are another form of domestic violence practiced in several parts of the world, and their victims are predominantly women.

According to a report of the Special Rapporteur submitted to the 58th session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights concerning cultural practices in the family that reflect violence against women:.

The Special Rapporteur indicated that there had been contradictory decisions with regard to the honour defense in Brazil , and that legislative provisions allowing for partial or complete defense in that context could be found in the penal codes of Argentina, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Peru, Syria, Venezuela, and the Palestinian National Authority.

Practices such as honor killings and stoning continue to be supported by mainstream politicians and other officials in some countries. In Pakistan, after the Balochistan honour killings in which five women were killed by tribesmen of the Umrani Tribe of Balochistan , Pakistani federal minister for Postal Services Israr Ullah Zehri defended the practice: [] "These are centuries-old traditions, and I will continue to defend them.

Only those who indulge in immoral acts should be afraid. Dowry deaths result from the killing of women who are unable to pay the high dowry price for their marriage.

According to Amnesty International , "the ongoing reality of dowry-related violence is an example of what can happen when women are treated as property".

Female infanticide is the killing of newborn female children, while female selective abortion is the terminating of a pregnancy based upon the female sex of the fetus.

Gendercide is the systematic killing of members of a specific gender and it is an extreme form of gender-based violence. Sex-selective abortion involves terminating a pregnancy based upon the predicted sex of the baby.

The abortion of female fetuses is most common in areas where a culture values male children over females, [] such as parts of East Asia and South Asia China, India, Korea , the Caucasus Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia , and Western Balkans Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Kosovo.

The trend has grown steadily over the previous decade, and may result in a future shortage of women. Forced sterilization and forced abortion are also forms of gender-based violence.

In China, the one child policy interacting with the low status of women has been deemed responsible for many abuses, such as female infanticide, sex-selective abortion, abandonment of baby girls, forced abortion, and forced sterilization.

In India the custom of dowry is strongly related to female infanticide, sex-selective abortion, abandonment and mistreatment of girls.

See Female foeticide in India and Female infanticide in India. Female genital mutilation is defined by the World Health Organization WHO as "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons".

The WHO further states that, "the procedure has no health benefits for girls and women" and "can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, infertility as well as complications in childbirth increased risk of newborn death".

Research by Lisak and Roth into factors motivating perpetrators of sexual assault, including rape, against women revealed a pattern of hatred towards women and pleasure in inflicting psychological and physical trauma, rather than sexual interest.

Odem, Jody Clay-Warner, and Susan Brownmiller argue that sexist attitudes are propagated by a series of myths about rape and rapists.

Sexism can promote the stigmatization of women and girls who have been raped and inhibit recovery. The criminalization of marital rape is very recent, having occurred during the past few decades; in many countries it is still legal.

Several countries in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia made spousal rape illegal before ; other European countries and some English-speaking countries outside Europe outlawed it later, mostly in the s and s; [] some countries outlawed it in the s.

The custom of marrying off young children, particularly girls, is found in many parts of the world. This practice—legal in many countries—is a form of sexual violence, since the children involved are unable to give or withhold their consent".

In countries where fornication or adultery are illegal, victims of rape can be charged criminally. Sexism is manifested by the crime of rape targeting women civilians and soldiers, committed by soldiers, combatants or civilians during armed conflict, war or military occupation.

This arises from the long tradition of women being seen as sexual booty and from the misogynistic culture of military training.

The United Nations Population Fund writes that, "Family planning is central to gender equality and women's empowerment".

A child marriage is a marriage where one or both spouses are under 18, a practice that disproportionately affects women.

The practice of marrying young girls is rooted in patriarchal ideologies of control of female behavior and is also sustained by traditional practices such as dowry and bride price.

Marrying girls under 18 years old is rooted in gender discrimination , encouraging premature and continuous child bearing and giving preference to boys' education.

Child marriage is also a strategy for economic survival as families marry off their daughters at an early age to reduce their economic burden.

Consequences of child marriage include restricted education and employment prospects, increased risk of domestic violence, child sexual abuse , pregnancy and birth complications, and social isolation.

In several Organisation of Islamic Cooperation OIC countries the legal testimony of a woman is worth legally half of that of a man see Status of women's testimony in Islam.

Such countries include: Algeria in criminal cases , Bahrain in Sharia courts , Egypt in family courts , Iran in most cases , Iraq in some cases , Jordan in Sharia courts , Kuwait in family courts , Libya in some cases , Morocco in family cases , Palestine in cases related to marriage, divorce and child custody , Qatar in family law matters , Syria in Sharia courts , United Arab Emirates in some civil matters , Yemen not allowed to testify at all in cases of adultery and retribution , and Saudi Arabia.

The criminal justice system in many common law countries has also been accused of discriminating against women. Provocation is, in many common law countries, a partial defense to murder , which converts what would have been murder into manslaughter.

It is meant to be applied when a person kills in the "heat of passion" upon being "provoked" by the behavior of the victim. This defense has been criticized as being gendered, favoring men, because of it being used disproportionately in cases of adultery , and other domestic disputes when women are killed by their partners.

As a result of the defense exhibiting a strong gender bias, and being a form of legitimization of male violence against women and minimization of the harm caused by violence against women, it has been abolished or restricted in several jurisdictions.

The traditional leniency towards crimes of passion in Latin American countries has been deemed to have its origin in the view that women are property.

In the United States, some studies have shown that for identical crimes, men are given harsher sentences than women. Women are more likely to avoid charges entirely, and to avoid imprisonment if convicted.

For example, the gender gap is less pronounced in fraud cases than in drug trafficking and firearms. This disparity occurs in US federal courts, despite guidelines designed to avoid differential sentencing.

According to Shatz and Shatz, "[t]he present study confirms what earlier studies have shown: that the death penalty is imposed on women relatively infrequently and that it is disproportionately imposed for the killing of women".

There have been several reasons postulated for the gender criminal justice disparity in the United States. One of the most common is the expectation that women are predominantly care-givers.

Gender discrimination also helps explain the differences between trial outcomes in which some female defendants are sentenced to death and other female defendants are sentenced to lesser punishments.

Phillip Barron argues that female defendants are more likely to be sentenced to death for crimes that violate gender norms, such as killing children or killing strangers.

Transgender people face widespread discrimination while incarcerated. They are generally housed according to their legal birth sex, rather than their gender identity.

Studies have shown that transgender people are at an increased risk for harassment and sexual assault in this environment.

They may also be denied access to medical procedures related to their reassignment. Some countries use stoning as a form of capital punishment.

According to Amnesty International, the majority of those stoned are women and women are disproportionately affected by stoning because of sexism in the legal system.

We also find evidence of considerable heterogeneity across judges in their treatment of female and male offenders. There is little evidence, however, that tastes for gender discrimination are driving the mean gender disparity or the variance in treatment between judges.

A study by Knepper found that "female plaintiffs filing workplace sex discrimination claims are substantially more likely to settle and win compensation whenever a female judge is assigned to the case.

Additionally, female judges are 15 percentage points less likely than male judges to grant motions filed by defendants, which suggests that final negotiations are shaped by the emergence of the bias.

Women have traditionally had limited access to higher education. Educational specialties in higher education produce and perpetuate inequality between men and women.

World literacy is lower for females than for males. Data from The World Factbook shows that In parts of Afghanistan, girls who go to school face serious violence from some local community members and religious groups.

Educational opportunities and outcomes for women have greatly improved in the West. Since , the proportion of women enrolled in college in the United States has exceeded the enrollment rate for men, and the gap has widened over time.

Writer Gerry Garibaldi has argued that the educational system has become "feminized", allowing girls more of a chance at success with a more "girl-friendly" environment in the classroom; [] this is seen to hinder boys by punishing "masculine" behavior and diagnosing boys with behavioral disorders.

The researchers attribute this to stereotypical ideas about boys and recommend teachers to be aware of this gender bias.

Gender bias and gender-based discrimination still permeate the education process in many settings.

For example, in the teaching and learning process, including differential engagement, expectations and interactions by teachers with their male and female students, as well as gender stereotypes in textbooks and learning materials.

There has been a lack in adequate resources and infrastructure to ensure safe and enabling learning environments , and insufficient policy , legal and planning frameworks, that respect, protect and fulfil the right to education.

Feminists argue that clothing and footwear fashion have been oppressive to women, restricting their movements, increasing their vulnerability, and endangering their health.

The assignment of gender-specific baby clothes can instill in children a belief in negative gender stereotypes. The fashion is recent one.

At the beginning of the 20th century the trend was the opposite: blue for girls and pink for boys. DressMaker magazine also explained that "[t]he preferred colour to dress young boys in is pink.

Blue is reserved for girls as it is considered paler, and the more dainty of the two colours, and pink is thought to be stronger akin to red ".

From the midth century [] until the late 19th or early 20th century, young boys in the Western world were unbreeched and wore gowns or dresses until an age that varied between two and eight.

Laws that dictate how women must dress are seen by many international human rights organizations, such as Amnesty International, as gender discrimination.

Interpretations of religion, culture, or tradition cannot justify imposing rules about dress on those who choose to dress differently.

States should take measures to protect individuals from being coerced to dress in specific ways by family members, community or religious groups or leaders.

The production process also faces criticism for sexist practices. In the garment industry, approximately 80 percent of workers are female.

Women who work in these factories are sexually harassed by managers and male workers, paid low wages, and discriminated against when pregnant.

Conscription , or compulsory military service, has been criticized as sexist. In his book The Second Sexism: Discrimination Against Men and Boys , philosopher David Benatar states that "[t]he prevailing assumption is that where conscription is necessary, it is only men who should be conscripted and, similarly, that only males should be forced into combat".

This, he believes, "is a sexist assumption". Only nine countries conscript women into their armed forces: China, Eritrea, Israel, Libya, Malaysia, North Korea, Norway, Peru, and Taiwan.

In , Norway became the first NATO country to introduce obligatory military service for women as an act of gender equality [] [] and in , the Dutch government started preparing a gender-neutral draft law.

This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3. Text taken from From access to empowerment: UNESCO strategy for gender equality in and through education , UNESCO, UNESCO.

To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia , please see the terms of use.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For discrimination based on sexuality, see Sexual orientation discrimination.

For other uses, see Anti-sexism disambiguation. General forms. African Albanian American Arab Armenian Australian Austrian Azerbaijani British Canadian Catalan Chechen Chilean Chinese Croat Dutch English Estonian European Filipino Finnish French Georgian German Greek Haitian Hazara Hispanic Hungarian Igbo Indian Indonesian Iranian Irish Israeli Italian Japanese Jewish Khmer Korean Kurdish Malay Manchu Mexican Middle Eastern Mongolian Montenegrin Pakistani Pashtun Polish Portuguese Quebec Romani Romanian Russian Scottish Serb Slavic Somali Soviet Tatar Thai Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Venezuelan Vietnamese Western.

Blood libel Bullying Compulsory sterilization Counter-jihad Cultural genocide Defamation Democide Disability hate crime Dog-whistle politics Eliminationism Ethnic cleansing Ethnic conflict Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnocide Forced conversion Freak show Gay bashing Gendercide Genital modification and mutilation Genocide examples Glass ceiling Hate crime Hate group Hate speech online Homeless dumping Indian rolling Lavender scare LGBT hate crimes Lynching Mortgage Murder music Occupational segregation Persecution Pogrom Purge Red Scare Religious persecution Religious terrorism Religious violence Religious war Scapegoating Segregation academy Sex-selective abortion Slavery Slut-shaming Trans bashing Victimisation Violence against women White flight White power music Wife selling Witch-hunt.

Age of candidacy Blood purity Blood quantum Crime of apartheid Disabilities Catholic Jewish Ethnocracy Ethnopluralism Gender pay gap Gender roles Gerontocracy Gerrymandering Ghetto benches Internment Jewish quota Jim Crow laws Law for Protection of the Nation McCarthyism MSM blood donation restrictions Nonpersons Numerus clausus as religious or racial quota Nuremberg Laws One-drop rule Racial quota Racial steering Redlining Same-sex marriage laws and issues prohibiting Segregation age racial religious sexual Sodomy law State atheism State religion Ugly law Voter suppression.

Affirmative action Anti-discrimination law Cultural assimilation Cultural pluralism Diversity training Empowerment Feminism Fighting Discrimination Hate speech laws by country Human rights Intersex rights LGBT rights Masculism Multiculturalism Nonviolence Racial integration Reappropriation Self-determination Social integration Toleration.

Related topics. Allophilia Anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms Bias Christian privilege Civil liberties Cultural assimilation Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Internalized oppression Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Medical model of disability autism Multiculturalism Net bias Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Polyculturalism Power distance Prejudice Prisoner abuse Racial bias in criminal news Racism by country Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social model of disability Social stigma Stereotype threat The talk White privilege.

Main article: Witch hunt. Main articles: Coverture , Marital power , Restitution of conjugal rights , Kirchberg v. Feenstra , and Marriage bar.

Social Feminist history History of feminism Women-only space Women's history American British Canadian German. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US.

Austria Australia Canada Japan Kuwait Liechtenstein New Zealand Spain Civil War Spain Francoist Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom Cayman Islands Wales United States In states Utah.

First Second Third Fourth. General variants. Religious variants. Buddhist Christian Mormon Neopagan Dianic Wicca Reclaiming Hindu Islamic Jewish Orthodox Sikh.

Literature Children's literature Effects on society Equality Female education Female genital mutilation Femicide Feminism in culture Feminist movement African-American women's suffrage movement Art movement In hip hop Feminist stripper Gender equality Girl power Honor killing International Girl's Day and Women's Day Language reform Matriarchal religion Media Men in feminism Misogyny Oedipus complex Opposition to feminism Political lesbianism Lesbian separatism Pro-feminism Protofeminism Purplewashing Reproductive justice Sex workers' rights Sexual harassment Sexual objectification Theory in composition studies Triple oppression Violence against women War on women Women's health Women's rights Toxic masculinity.

Criticism of marriage Views on BDSM Views on pornography Views on prostitution Views on sexual orientation Views on sexuality Views on transgender topics.

By country. Albania Australia Bangladesh Canada China Democratic Republic of the Congo Denmark Egypt Ethiopia Finland France Germany Ghana Greece Hong Kong India Indonesia Iran Iraq Republic of Ireland Israel Italy Japan Latin America Argentina Brazil Chile Haiti Honduras Mexico Paraguay Trinidad and Tobago Lebanon Malaysia Mali Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nigeria Northern Cyprus Norway Pakistan Philippines Poland Russia Syria Saudi Arabia South Africa South Korea Sweden Taiwan Thailand Turkey Vietnam Ukraine United Kingdom United States History of women.

Lists and categories. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books. See also: Gender-neutral language.

Main articles: Occupational sexism and Second-generation gender bias. The practice of using first names for individuals from a profession that is predominantly female occurs in health care.

Physicians are typically referred to using their last name, but nurses are referred to, even by physicians they do not know, by their first name.

According to Suzanne Gordon, a typical conversation between a physician and a nurse is: "Hello Jane. I'm Dr. Would you hand me the patient's chart?

Main article: Gender pay gap. Main article: Glass ceiling. See also: Transgender inequality. See also: Feminist views on pornography.

See also: Misogyny in rap music , Sexism in heavy metal music , and Sexuality in music videos. See also: Transphobia and Healthcare and the LGBT community.

Further information: Honor killing , Acid throwing , and Dowry death. Main article: Female genital mutilation. Main articles: Sexual assault and Post-assault treatment of sexual assault victims.

Main article: War rape. Main article: Reproductive rights. Main articles: Child marriage and Forced marriage. Further information: Dowry and Bride price.

Main articles: Sex differences in education and Sexism in academia. See also: Foot binding and Burqa. Further information: List of historical sources for pink and blue as gender signifiers.

Main article: Conscription and sexism. Antifeminism Discrimination against non-binary gender people Face-ism Female gendering of AI technologies Femicide Feminism Gender apartheid Gender bias on Wikipedia Gender discrimination in Pakistan Gender egalitarianism Gender neutrality Gender polarization Gender-blind Glass cliff Hegemonic masculinity Heterosexism Hypermasculinity Intersectionality LGBT stereotypes Male privilege Masculism Matriarchy Men and feminism Men's rights movement Misandry National Organization for Men Against Sexism National Organization for Women Occupational segregation Occupational sexism Pink-collar worker Reverse sexism Sex differences in humans Sex segregation Sexism in India Sexism in the technology industry Sexual division of labour Transphobia Wife selling Women in firefighting Women in law enforcement Women in the workforce.

See, for example: "Sexism". Oxford University Press. Defines sexism as "prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex".

Defines sexism as "prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls". Notes that "sexism in a society is most commonly applied against women and girls.

It functions to maintain patriarchy, or male domination, through ideological and material practices of individuals, collectives, and institutions that oppress women and girls on the basis of sex or gender.

A Companion to Applied Ethics. London: Blackwell. Notes that " 'Sexism' refers to a historically and globally pervasive form of oppression against women.

In O'Brien, Jodi ed. Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. SAGE Publishing. Notes that "sexism usually refers to prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls".

Also states that "sexism is an ideology or practices that maintain patriarchy or male domination. In Honderich, Ted ed. Defines sexism as "thought or practice which may permeate language and which assumes women's inferiority to men".

Collins Dictionary of Sociology. Harper Collins. Defines sexism as "any devaluation or denigration of women or men, but particularly women, which is embodied in institutions and social relationships.

Palgrave MacMillan Dictionary of Political Thought. Palgrave MacMillan. Notes that "either sex may be the object of sexist attitudes The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Love, Courtship, and Sexuality through History, Volume 6: The Modern World.

Built upon the belief that men and women are constitutionally different, sexism takes these differences as indications that men are inherently superior to women, which then is used to justify the nearly universal dominance of men in social and familial relationships, as well as politics, religion, language, law, and economics.

In Kurlan, George Thomas ed. The Encyclopedia of Political Science. CQ Press. Notes that "both men and women can experience sexism, but sexism against women is more pervasive".

Johnson, Allan G. The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology. Suggests that "the key test of whether something is sexist I specify 'male privilege' because in every known society where gender inequality exists, males are privileged over females.

Gender Inequality: Feminist Theories and Politics. Notes that "although we speak of gender inequality, it is usually women who are disadvantaged relative to similarly situated men".

Wortman, Camille B. The Handbook of Culture and Psychology. American Journal of Psychiatry. New York: McGraw-Hill Education. Beyond Comparison: Sex and Discrimination.

New York: Cambridge University Press. Clinical Aspects of Sexual Harassment and Gender Discrimination: Psychological Consequences and Treatment Interventions.

Retrieved April 20, Gender or Sex Discrimination: This term refers to the types of gender bias that have a negative impact. The term has legal, as well as theoretical and psychological, definitions.

Psychological consequences can be more readily inferred from the latter, but both definitions are of significance. Retrieved June 20, October 19, Retrieved July 20, February 16, The Wise Legacy: How One Professor Transformed the Nation.

Retrieved September 12, New York: McGraw-Hill. Sociology in modules. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Upper Saddle River, N. Kroehler, Carolyn J.

Unger, Rhoda Kesler. Boston: McGraw-Hill. London: Pluto. Trumansburg, New York: Crossing Press. Down Girl: The Logic of Misogyny.

Ithaca, New York: Oxford University Press. Silverman Ancient Egypt. Retrieved March 2, A History of the Peoples of the British Isles: From Prehistoric Times to Societies, Networks, and Transitions: A Global History.

From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. National Archives Identifier: BabelNet ID: n.

Subcategories This category has the following 14 subcategories, out of 14 total. Media in category "Sexism" The following 58 files are in this category, out of 58 total.

A full length frontal figure divided in half, one half Wellcome V Andy and Bax Surplus. Armoire balais paris roissy 1 IMG Bei uns liest man.

Bettie Page driving. Careta caricature Melhoral ed 3 jul Cliffecastlemus Company shocked at a lady getting up to ring the bell LCCN Du Raan House.

Everyday sexism. Exclusion of Women - Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur. Feminology; a guide for womankind, giving in detail instructions as to motherhood, maidenhood, and the nursery Fight sexism graffiti in Turin November Gender Equality Index Graaff Hall.

Jasvinder Sanghera BBC Radio4 Desert Island Discs 24 March b01rfy Play media. Verwandt mit diesem Ansatz sind die Diskussionen um die heterosexistische Diskriminierung von Schwulen, Lesben und Menschen, die nicht ins gängige Geschlechterkonzept passen.

Sexuelle Belästigung bezeichnet immer konkretes, auf Sexualität bezogenes Verhalten , das unerwünscht ist und durch das sich eine Person unwohl und in ihrer Würde verletzt fühlt.

Während gegen sexuelle Belästigung in einigen Bereichen Arbeitsplatz, Schule oder unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen juristisch vorgegangen werden kann, ist dies bei Sexismus in der Regel kaum möglich.

Eine wissenschaftliche Diskussion und systematische Versuche zur Abgrenzung der Begriffskonzepte Gynophobie , Misogynie , Misandrie , Frauenfeindlichkeit , Sexismus und Antifeminismus gibt es bislang kaum.

Häufig wird nur einer der Begriffe verwendet; vereinzelt wird versucht, einzelne Begriffe inhaltlich oder graduell voneinander abzugrenzen; [34] [35] teilweise werden sie auch synonym verwendet.

Misogynie oder ihre schwächere Form, Gynophobie Angst vor Frauen oder Weiblichkeit , ist in der Regel ideologisch oder psychologisch begründet.

Anders als der Antifeminismus , der oft synonym verwendet wird, sich jedoch auf Einstellungen zur Emanzipation von Frauen bezieht, impliziert Misogynie eine inhärente Minderwertigkeit von Frauen und stellt damit essentialistische Vorstellungen von Weiblichkeit dar.

Die Leipziger Autoritarismus-Studie unterscheidet zwischen einem klassischen Sexismus, der auf traditionellen und zumeist heteronormativen Rollenzuschreibungen beruht, von einem männerbündisch und rechtsnational geprägten Antifeminismus, betont aber, dass sexistische und antifeministische Positionen oft nah beieinander lägen.

Sexistische Ideologie könne auf diese Weise misogyne Praktiken rechtfertigen. Die Ursache von Sexismus liegt in verschiedenen Glaubensgrundsätzen und Haltungen gegenüber dem Geschlecht, das die Diskriminierung erfährt, sowohl durch das eigene Geschlecht als auch durch andere Geschlechter.

Bezüglich der Diskriminierung gegenüber Männern führt der Philosophieprofessor David Benatar an, dass diese in der Gesellschaft generell als weniger wert angesehen werden, was sich beispielsweise in der höheren Bereitschaft zeigt, das Leben von Männern zu opfern, oder der geringeren Besorgnis, die der Tod von Männern auslöst.

Weiterhin wird in der Gesellschaft geglaubt, Männer seien oder sollen widerstandsfähiger als Frauen sein, weswegen ihre Nöte oft nicht ernst genommen werden.

Ferner werden Männer mehr als Beschützer gesehen aber weniger als diejenigen, die Schutz erhalten. Die Ursachen von Sexismus liegen in unbewussten oder bewussten Ängsten vor der Infragestellung männlicher Geschlechtsidentitäten bzw.

Unsicherheiten bezüglich männlicher Geschlechtsidentitäten sowie in Ängsten vor der Destabilisierung der darauf basierenden hierarchischen Geschlechterordnungen.

Denn männliche Geschlechtsidentitäten sind nicht nur elementare Identitätsbestandteile in jeder Gesellschaft, sondern die Grundlage aller hierarchischen Geschlechterordnungen von übergeordnet konkurrierenden Männlichkeiten hegemoniale Männlichkeit und untergeordnet konkurrierenden Weiblichkeiten.

Seximus ist insofern ein Teil von Geschlechterordnungen, deren soziale Ordnungsstruktur wissenschaftlich mithilfe von unterschiedlichen Begriffskonzepten wie Geschlechtsrollen stereotype , Gender , Doing Gender oder Geschlechtshabitus erforscht und beschrieben wird.

Um den Ängsten entgegenzuwirken, dient Sexismus als unbewusst oder bewusst eingesetztes Mittel zur Machtausübung, mit dessen Hilfe Machtgefälle bzw.

Abhängigkeitsverhältnisse vergeschlechtlicht und aufrechterhalten werden. Die Wirkung von Sexismus ist es also, "Personen eines bestimmten Geschlechts zu unterwerfen".

Während das Phänomen des Sexismus in Enzyklopädien, Lexika und Handbüchern erklärt wird, werden die Ursachen meist nicht dargestellt.

Seit den er-Jahren wird die Ursache-Wirkungs-Beziehung zunehmend genau in der Fachliteratur beschrieben — auch zusammen mit anderen Phänomenen gruppenbezogener Ängste und resultierender Diskriminierungen wie beispielsweise Rassismus , Antisemitismus , Homophobie , Fremdenfeindlichkeit etc.

In ihnen wird eine vergleichbare theoretische Grundposition verwendet der Begriff selbst nicht. Daher in allen Sprachen der Welt der Kult des Mannes.

Ähnlich argumentierte die Philosophin Simone de Beauvoir — in ihrer erschienenen Abhandlung Das andere Geschlecht. Eine erste wissenschaftliche Auseinandersetzung mit Sexismus fand ab Anfang der er Jahre in den USA statt.

Juni , führte das zu Heiterkeit. Sie definierte Sexismus als eine umfassende Unterdrückung von Frauen. Sexismus war immer Ausbeutung, Verstümmelung, Vernichtung, Beherrschung, Verfolgung von Frauen.

Im Zuge der Diskussion um die verschiedenen Unterdrückungsverhältnisse wurde zwischen Vorurteil und Unterdrückung [66] differenziert:. Es sind nicht die sexistischen Bilder und Worte, die an sich so schlimm sind, es ist die Macht über Frauen, die Androhung von Gewalt gegen Frauen, die der sexistischen Sprache ihre Sprengkraft verleiht.

Heute werden in der Intersektionalitätsforschung von intersection : Überschneidung, Kreuzung, Schnittmenge nicht mehr nur die Unterdrückungsverhältnisse addiert, sondern es wird untersucht, welche Auswirkungen die Kreuzungen der Unterdrückungsverhältnisse wie Sexismus, Rassismus, Behindertenfeindlichkeit haben.

Die Vorurteil -Forschung arbeitet mit standardisierten Fragebögen, die in den er Jahren eine Wandlung erfahren haben.

In den er Jahren wurde mit der Attitudes Toward Women Scale AWS das inzwischen als traditioneller Sexismus oder offener Sexismus bezeichnete Geschlechtervorurteil ermittelt.

Mit dem neuen Forschungsansatz wurde seit den er Jahren insofern immer deutlicher, dass Sexismus nicht mehr in seiner traditionellen Form offen gezeigt wird, sondern ebenfalls einer Modernisierung unterliegt.

Als Neosexismus wird der Konflikt zwischen egalitären Werten und negativen Emotionen gegenüber Frauen bezeichnet. Moderner Sexismus und Neosexismus liefern ideologische Rechtfertigungen für bestehende Ungleichheit: Der Status quo wird als fair wahrgenommen und eine Reduktion von Geschlechterungleichheit wird folglich verhindert.

Es wird in der Forschung seit den er Jahren zwischen wohlmeinendem benevolentem Sexismus und feindseligem hostilem Sexismus unterschieden, deren Zusammenwirken als ambivalenter Sexismus bezeichnet wird.

Die Psychologin Amy Yeung fand eine kognitive Verzerrung , die fälschlicherweise eine negative Korrelation zwischen wohlmeinendem und feindseligem Sexismus annimmt.

Männern, die geringen wohlmeinenden Sexismus gegenüber Frauen zeigen, werde im Gegenzug feindseliger Sexismus, ein schlechter Vater zu sein und eine höhere Wahrscheinlichkeit zu häuslicher Gewalt unterstellt.

Tatsächlich würden Männer, die geringen wohlmeinenden Sexismus zeigen, auch geringen feindseligen Sexismus zeigen. Für Frauen könne eine solche verzerrte Wahrnehmung hingegen nicht gefunden werden.

Der Philosophieprofessor David Benatar fasste verschiedene Formen des Sexismus über verschiedene Länder zusammen. Der Sexismus gegen Frauen, der bereits gut untersucht und diskutiert ist, nannte er den ersten Sexismus.

Als Beispiele dafür nannte er etwa die Kindstötung von Mädchen in Kulturen, die eine Präferenz für Jungen haben, die Witwenverbrennung , weibliche Genitalverstümmelung , Verschleierung , sowie den Ausschluss von Mädchen aus dem höheren Bildungsbereich, der an manchen Stellen existierte.

Neben dem Sexismus gegen Frauen sieht David Benatar einen zweiten Sexismus , der sich gegen Männer richtet:. Widerspruch gegen Benatars Konzept betont, dass Frauen und Mädchen anders als Männer und Jungen seit Jahrhunderten systematisch unterdrückt worden seien, während die von Benatar aufgezeigte Diskriminierung ein Nebenprodukt eines von Männern erschaffenen Unterdrückungssystem sei.

Die meisten Männer, die niedrigeren sozialen Sichten angehören, könnten genauso wie Frauen Opfer von systematischer Diskriminierung durch die Dominanz weniger Männer höheren sozialen Status sein.

Kritiker würden die Möglichkeit einer Diskriminierung auf Basis des Geschlechts und der sozialen Klasse Intersektionalität nicht berücksichtigen.

Für den von ihm angenommenen Sexismus gegenüber Männern sei es nicht entscheidend, dass gegen alle Männer diskriminiert werde, sondern dass es ein Problem mit Diskriminierung des Geschlechts wegen für eine Vielzahl von Männern gibt.

Kenneth Chatterbaugh betont das lange bestehende feministische Engagement gegen die Diskriminierung von Männern. Eine Studie von , die von dem modernen Sexismus ausgeht, untersucht Frauen und Männer als Betroffene von zwischenmenschlichem Sexismus.

Die Studie zeigte, dass vor allem Frauen von Sexismus betroffen sind und im Durchschnitt von ein bis zwei sexistischen Vorfällen pro Woche berichten, was zu negativen Auswirkungen auf das psychische Wohlbefinden führt.

Im Gegensatz zu den Frauen gab nahezu keiner der befragten Männer an, sich ernsthaft davon betroffen zu fühlen, auf einen geschlechtsspezifischen Objektstatus reduziert zu werden.

Dieses Phänomen bezog sich auf geschlechtsdiskriminierende Vorstellungen. Besonders häufig sind sexistische Weltbilder laut Studie in der Gruppe der über jährigen Ostdeutschen.

Die Studie findet zudem starke Auswirkungen des Bildungsgrad auf sexistische Einstellungen. Die Sensibilität für Sexismus hängt laut Studie vom Bildungsniveau der Befragten ab.

Diese Form des Sexismus zeigt sich nicht offen und direkt, sondern indirekt. Das Gegenteil dazu bildet der benevolente wohlwollende Sexismus.

In diesem Artikel oder Abschnitt fehlen noch folgende wichtige Informationen: Sexismus in der Werbung; Beurteilung von Sexismus gegen transsexuelle und intersexuelle Personen.

Leet, [5]. Der nachfolgende Absatz ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen beispielsweise Einzelnachweisen ausgestattet.

Angaben ohne ausreichenden Beleg könnten demnächst entfernt werden. Bitte hilf Wikipedia, indem du die Angaben recherchierst und gute Belege einfügst.

In: Ruth Becker: Handbuch Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung: Theorie, Methoden, Empirie. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaft, Wiesbaden , S.

Becker: Subtile Erscheinungsformen von Sexismus. In: APUZ. Februar , abgerufen am Oktober In: The Wise Legacy: How One Professor Transformed the Nation.

In: American Speech. Leet: Women and the Undergraduate. In: Student-Faculty Forum at Franklin and Marshall College.

Lancaster PA November In: Vital Speeches of the Day. November , S. In: taz die tageszeitung , Mai , Link zielt auf die erweiterte Version im Blog des Autors.

In: Ruth Becker, Beate Kortendieck Hrsg. Theorie, Methoden, Empirie. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden , S.

In: Duden. Abgerufen am

Sexsismus Handy Als Webcam House. National Association Against Woman Suffrage. Namespaces Category Discussion. Stop sexisme poster Amsterdam Sticker in Copenhagen, Denmark. Blog. Feb. 3, 7 benefits of working from home; Jan. 26, Five strategies to maximize your sales kickoff; Jan. 26, Engage students in your virtual classroom with Prezi Video for Google Workspace. 10/28/ · Writing and drawing made easy, amusing and instructive - containing the whole alphabet in all the characters now us'd, both in printing and penmanship - each illustrated by emblematic devices and ().jpg 2, × 1,; KB.

Schon der aktuelle Trailer zu "Terminator 6: Dark Fate" hlt einige Sexsismus auf frhere Filme der The Walking Dead Box Set bereit. - Ist Sexismus immer leicht zu erkennen?

Scientific Debates. Man n ipulation wohin frau sieht Das gilt auch für die Arbeitswelt, in der nach wie vor viele Schlüssel- und Führungspositionen männlich Wdr Wunderschön Kanaren sind. Wie bei etlichen Anglizismen führt die direkte Übernahme eines englischen Begriffs ins Deutsche zu einem Bedeutungswandel — in diesem Fall führt die Übernahme des englischen Wortes sexism als deutsches Wort Sexismus Tobias Schenke einer Bedeutungsverengung. Blog. Feb. 3, 7 benefits of working from home; Jan. 26, Five strategies to maximize your sales kickoff; Jan. 26, Engage students in your virtual classroom with Prezi Video for Google Workspace. Moritz Neumeier packt die Themen auf den Bühnentisch! Denn der Himmel ist blau! UND KÄFER FLIEGEN AUCH!!!. Writing and drawing made easy, amusing and instructive - containing the whole alphabet in all the characters now us'd, both in printing and penmanship - each illustrated by emblematic devices and ().jpg 2, × 1,; KB. Search, watch, and cook every single Tasty recipe and video ever - all in one place!. Sexismus je termín vzniklý v druhé polovině století, který se vztahuje na přesvědčení, že jedno z pohlaví je nižší, méně důležité nebo schopné.. Může se vztahovat buď na nenávist k celému pohlaví: misandrie (nenávist k mužům) a misogynie (nenávist k ženám), nebo na uplatňování genderových stereotypů o maskulinitě a femin.

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