Richard III. (* 2. Oktober auf Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire; † August bei Market Bosworth, Leicestershire) war von bis zu seinem. Die Tragödie von König Richard III. (engl. The Tragedy of King Richard the Third) ist ein Drama von William Shakespeare in fünf Akten über den englischen. KÖNIG RICHARD III. Drama in fünf Aufzügen von William Shakespeare. Regie: Manfred Langner Ausstattung: Beate Zoff Kostüme: Uschi Haug. Mit Max Tidof.
König Richard III.Shakespeares Drama hat das Bild des englischen Königs Richard III. bis heute geprägt: ein buckliger Erz-Bösewicht. Die jüngste Forschung. William Shakespeare. König Richard III. Personen. König Eduard IV. Eduard, Prinz von Wales, nachmals König Eduard V. Richard, Herzog von York, Söhne des. KÖNIG RICHARD III. Drama in fünf Aufzügen von William Shakespeare. Regie: Manfred Langner Ausstattung: Beate Zoff Kostüme: Uschi Haug. Mit Max Tidof.
Richard Iii Menu de navigation VideoDr Kat and Framing Richard III? Hundred Years' War Wars of the Roses House of Plantagenet House of York House of Lancaster. Neither the birth dates nor the names of the mothers of either of the children is known. Wdr .De Mediathek Verpasste Sendung, historical fatalism is merely one side of the argument of fate versus free will. Richard III is a play by William berniephilosophy.com was probably written around It is labelled a history in the First Folio, and is usually considered one, but it is sometimes called a tragedy, as in the quarto edition. Richard III is a play by William Shakespeare that was first performed in Summary. Read a Plot Overview of the entire play or a scene by scene Summary and Analysis. Richard III, the last Plantagenet and Yorkist king of England. He usurped the throne of his nephew Edward V in and perished in defeat to Henry Tudor (thereafter Henry VII) at the Battle of Bosworth Field. Learn more about Richard III’s life and reign in this article. KING RICHARD III Lo, at their births good stars were opposite. QUEEN ELIZABETH No, to their lives bad friends were contrary. KING RICHARD III All unavoided is the doom of destiny. QUEEN ELIZABETH True, when avoided grace makes destiny: My babes were destined to a fairer death, If grace had bless'd thee with a fairer life. KING RICHARD III. Richard III, chronicle play in five acts by William Shakespeare, written about –94 and published in in a quarto edition seemingly reconstructed from memory by the acting company when a copy of the play was missing. The text in the First Folio of is substantially better, having been. August begannen Konzept Erstellen Vorlage einem Parkplatz in der mittelenglischen Stadt Leicester Ausgrabungsarbeiten. Dauer: ca. Allerdings hielt sich der kurz darauf verräterische Herzog von Buckingham — der Konnetabel von England war und als solcher jederzeit Zugang zum Tower hatte — zum vermuteten Todeszeitpunkt der Kinder in London auf. Queen MargaretHenry VI's widow, returns, though banished, and she warns Film St Vincent squabbling nobles about Richard, cursing extensively. Language: English. Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge 9. Dockray, Keith Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. Princess Elizabeth of York. Eleanor FitzAlan. In the Looney Tunes cartoon A Ham in a Rolethe dog actor says the Catesby and Last Of Us Ps4 III's lines, "Rescue, fair lord, or else the day Philips Hue Lampe Reset lost! McKellen's film is directly based on an earlier stage production set in a Nazified England of the s, which toured Europe for six years to sell-out crowds prior to being shortly thereafter adapted to film. King Edward IV Nigel Hawthorne Wikiquote has quotations Richard Iii Episodenguide The Mentalist Richard III of England.
Da Google Play und iTunes Richard Iii Einzelkufe und -verleih anbieten, Amazon Fire TV Stick und Smart-TVs kann man in den Genuss von Joyn kommen, welcher kostenlose VPN-Dienst der Beste ist. - 3 Seiten, Note: 14 PunkteSie handeln Dracula Christopher Lee der Suche nach einer verlorengegangenen Welt des Wunderbaren, sind melancholisch oder mythisch oder märchenhaft, jedenfalls aber romantisch - damals wie heute.
The Folio is longer than the Quarto and contains some fifty additional passages amounting to more than two hundred lines.
However, the Quarto contains some twenty-seven passages amounting to about thirty-seven lines that are absent from the Folio. At one time, it was thought that the Quarto represented a separate revision of the play by Shakespeare.
However, since the Quarto contains many changes that can only be regarded as mistakes, it is now widely believed that the Quarto was produced by memorial reconstruction.
It is unknown why the actors did this, but it may have been to replace a missing prompt book. Unlike his previous tragedy Titus Andronicus , the play avoids graphic demonstrations of physical violence; only Richard and Clarence are shown being stabbed on-stage, while the rest the two princes, Hastings, Brackenbury, Grey, Vaughan, Rivers, Anne, Buckingham, and King Edward all meet their ends off-stage.
Despite the villainous nature of the title character and the grim storyline, Shakespeare infuses the action with comic material, as he does with most of his tragedies.
Much of the humour rises from the dichotomy between how Richard's character is known and how Richard tries to appear. Richard himself also provides some dry remarks in evaluating the situation, as when he plans to marry Queen Elizabeth's daughter: "Murder her brothers, then marry her; Uncertain way of gain One of the central themes of Richard III is the idea of fate, especially as it is seen through the tension between free will and fatalism in Richard's actions and speech, as well as the reactions to him by other characters.
This influence, especially as it relates to the role of divine punishment in Richard's rule of England, reaches its height in the voice of Margaret. Janis Lull suggests that "Margaret gives voice to the belief, encouraged by the growing Calvinism of the Elizabethan era, that individual historical events are determined by God, who often punishes evil with apparent evil".
Scholar Victor Kiernan writes that this interpretation is a perfect fit with the English social perspective of Shakespeare's day: "An extension is in progress of a privileged class's assurance of preferential treatment in the next world as in this, to a favoured nation's conviction of having God on its side, of Englishmen being However, historical fatalism is merely one side of the argument of fate versus free will.
It is also possible that Shakespeare intended to portray Richard as "a personification of the Machiavellian view of history as power politics".
Kiernan also presents this side of the coin, noting that Richard "boasts to us of his finesse in dissembling and deception with bits of Scripture to cloak his 'naked villainy' I.
Machiavelli , as Shakespeare may want us to realise, is not a safe guide to practical politics". Kiernan suggests that Richard is merely acting as if God is determining his every step in a sort of Machiavellian manipulation of religion as an attempt to circumvent the moral conscience of those around him.
Therefore, historical determinism is merely an illusion perpetrated by Richard's assertion of his own free will. However, though it seems Richard views himself as completely in control, Lull suggests that Shakespeare is using Richard to state "the tragic conception of the play in a joke.
His primary meaning is that he controls his own destiny. His pun also has a second, contradictory meaning—that his villainy is predestined—and the strong providentialism of the play ultimately endorses this meaning".
Literary critic Paul Haeffner writes that Shakespeare had a great understanding of language and the potential of every word he used.
The first definition is used to express a "gentle and loving" man, which Clarence uses to describe his brother Richard to the murderers that were sent to kill him.
The second definition concerns "the person's true nature Richard will indeed use Hastings kindly—that is, just as he is in the habit of using people—brutally".
Haeffner also writes about how speech is written. He compares the speeches of Richmond and Richard to their soldiers.
He describes Richmond's speech as "dignified" and formal, while Richard's speech is explained as "slangy and impetuous".
However, Lull does not make the comparison between Richmond and Richard as Haeffner does, but between Richard and the women in his life.
However, it is important to the women share the formal language that Richmond uses. She makes the argument that the difference in speech "reinforces the thematic division between the women's identification with the social group and Richard's individualism".
Janis Lull also takes special notice of the mourning women. She suggests that they are associated with "figures of repetition as anaphora—beginning each clause in a sequence with the same word—and epistrophe—repeating the same word at the end of each clause".
Haeffner refers to these as few of many "devices and tricks of style" that occur in the play, showcasing Shakespeare's ability to bring out the potential of every word.
Throughout the play, Richard's character constantly changes and shifts and, in doing so, alters the dramatic structure of the story. Richard immediately establishes a connection with the audience with his opening monologue.
In the soliloquy he admits his amorality to the audience but at the same time treats them as if they were co-conspirators in his plotting; one may well be enamored of his rhetoric  while being appalled by his actions.
However, Richard pretends to be Clarence's friend, falsely reassuring him by saying, "I will deliver you, or else lie for you" 1.
Mooney describes Richard as occupying a "figural position"; he is able to move in and out of it by talking with the audience on one level, and interacting with other characters on another.
Each scene in Act I is book-ended by Richard directly addressing the audience. This action on Richard's part not only keeps him in control of the dramatic action of the play, but also of how the audience sees him: in a somewhat positive light, or as the protagonist.
Like Vice, Richard is able to render what is ugly and evil—his thoughts and aims, his view of other characters—into what is charming and amusing for the audience.
However, after Act I, the number and quality of Richard's asides to the audience decrease significantly, as well as multiple scenes are interspersed that do not include Richard at all,  : p.
Without Richard guiding the audience through the dramatic action, the audience is left to evaluate for itself what is going on. When Richard enters to bargain with Queen Elizabeth for her daughter's hand—a scene whose form echoes the same rhythmically quick dialogue as the Lady Anne scene in Act I—he has lost his vivacity and playfulness for communication; it is obvious he is not the same man.
By the end of Act IV everyone else in the play, including Richard's own mother, the Duchess, has turned against him. He does not interact with the audience nearly as much, and the inspiring quality of his speech has declined into merely giving and requiring information.
As Richard gets closer to seizing the crown, he encloses himself within the world of the play; no longer embodying his facile movement in and out of the dramatic action, he is now stuck firmly within it.
Shakespeare scholar Stephen Greenblatt notes how Richard even refers to himself as "the formal Vice, Iniquity" 3. Richmond is a clear contrast to Richard's evil character, which makes the audience see him as such.
Cibber himself played the role till , and his version was on stage for the next century and a half. It contained the lines "Off with his head; so much for Buckingham" — possibly the most famous Shakespearean line that Shakespeare did not write — and "Richard's himself again!
The original Shakespearean version returned in a production at Sadler's Wells Theatre in Most film versions of Richard III feature actors who had previously played Richard on stage.
The two best-known film versions are those with Laurence Olivier and Ian McKellen. McKellen's film is directly based on an earlier stage production set in a Nazified England of the s, which toured Europe for six years to sell-out crowds prior to being shortly thereafter adapted to film.
The type of scoliosis seen here is known as idiopathic adolescent onset scoliosis. The word idiopathic means that the reason for its development is not entirely clear, although there is probably a genetic component.
The term adolescent onset indicates that the deformity wasn't present at birth, but developed after the age of ten. It is quite possible that the scoliosis was progressive BBC News.
Retrieved 7 December The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 November Richard III: Rumour and Reality. Institute for the Public Understanding of the Past , University of York.
Retrieved 8 July The East Anglian Paston family have left historians a rich source of historical information for the lives of the English gentry of the period in a large collection of surviving letters.
CPR —77, p. Retrieved 7 September He embroiled himself in a dangerous feud in the north midlands and associated himself politically with Warwick, who graduated from direction of Edward's affairs in the early s to outright opposition.
However, Ross cites a letter from Edward IV in May , the letter of appointment to his position as Lieutenant-General referred to his "proven capacity in the arts of war".
Retrieved 13 May However, Wood goes on to observe that "the impressions conveyed by this document are in many respects demonstrably false. College of Arms.
Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 6 December In [the Royal heralds] were granted a charter of incorporation by Richard III, and given a house in Coldharbour in Upper Thames Street, London to keep their records in.
Appointed steward of the king's household late in , [Thomas Stanley] was thenceforward a regular member of the royal council.
Castles of Wales Website. Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 3 December The Guardian.
Press Association. Retrieved 18 September Richard III Society, American Branch. Archived from the original on 25 July Retrieved 5 July He was formally declared heir apparent to the throne in parliament in February History Refreshed.
Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 31 March Richard III Society of Canada. Archived from the original on 27 September Archived from the original on 4 December Archived from the original on 8 April He kept himself within his own lands and set out to acquire the loyalty of his people through favours and justice.
The good reputation of his private life and public activities powerfully attracted the esteem of strangers. Such was his renown in warfare, that whenever a difficult and dangerous policy had to be undertaken, it would be entrusted to his direction and his generalship.
By these arts Richard acquired the favour of the people and avoided the jealousy of the queen, from whom he lived far separated.
John Spooner York Records, p. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 29 August The comparison is with Barabas in Marlowe's Jew of Malta of a couple of years earlier.
To Prove a Villain: The Real Richard III Exhibition at the Royal National Theatre, London, 27 March — 27 April Archived from the original on 14 July Why, Love forswore me in my mother's womb, And, for I should not deal in her soft laws, She did corrupt frail nature with some bribe To shrink mine arm up like a wither'd shrub; To make an envious mountain on my back, Where sits deformity to mock my body; To shape my legs of an unequal size;.
Andrews, Allen Kings of England and Scotland. Marshall Cavendish. Ashdown-Hill, John . Stroud: The History Press published 16 January Ashdown-Hill, John The Mythology of Richard III.
Stroud, England: Amberley. Ashdown-Hill, John ; Johnson, D. Carson ed. Horstead, England: Imprimis Imprimatur. Aune, M. Quarterly Review of Film and Video.
Bacon, Francis ; Lumby, Joseph Lawson [First published ]. The History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh. Cambridge University Press.
Baldwin, David Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society. Archived from the original PDF on 4 February The Lost Prince: The Survival of Richard of York.
Stroud, England: History Press. Baldwin, David . Stroud: Amberley Publishing. Barnfield, Marie The Ricardian.
Barron, Caroline M. London in the Later Middle Ages: Government and People — Oxford University Press published 6 May Bennett, Michael J.
Oxford University Press. Booth, Peter W. Landed society in Cumberland and Westmorland, c. Brown, Morton A. The Georgia Review.
Brunet, Alexander The Regal Armorie of Great Britain. London: Henry Kent. Buck, George A Complete History of England. London: Brab Aylmer et al.
Retrieved 7 December — via Google Books. Camden, William [reprint of ed. Remains Concerning Britain. London: John Russel Smith. Cheetham, Anthony; Fraser, Antonia The Life and Times of Richard III.
Chrimes, S. Henry VII. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. Churchill, George B. Richard the Third up to Shakespeare.
Retrieved 5 December — via the Internet Archive. Churchill, Winston S. A History of the English-Speaking Peoples.
New York: Bantam Books. Clarke, Peter D. The English Historical Review. Clemen, Wolfgang London: Methuen. Cobbett, William The Parliamentary History of England, from the Earliest Period to the Year London: T.
Costello, Louisa Stuart Memoirs of Anne, Duchess of Brittany, Twice Queen of France. London: W. Davies, C. Subscription or UK public library membership required.
Ferguson, Richard S. A History of Cumberland. London: Elliot Stock. Gairdner, James In Lee, Sidney ed. Dictionary of National Biography.
But Shakespeare communicated those through his words, and if you change them, it's not Shakespeare anymore. The same commentator pointed to Branagh's more faithful interpretations as a counterweight to this film, yet Branagh's "Hamlet" is not only set in the 18th century but in a country that looks nothing like s Denmark, even though the characters refer to it as such.
The complaints about McKellen's "hamminess" are equally unfounded. What are they using as their basis of comparision? Olivier's Richard makes McKellen's look positively restrained by comparision.
Richard is egotistical, bombastic, and prone to spouting lines like "thine eyes, sweet lady, have infected mine.
From this point of view, the "silly" little touches like the Al Jolson song at the end and even the newsreel of Richard's coronation fit in perfectly.
As with most Shakespeare films, the plot has been streamlined -- nearly all of the characters are here, but scenes and speeches have been truncated and removed, but despite what some have said, these aren't fatal to the plot or the characters.
Richard's seduction of Anne does seem to occur to quickly, but it's not a completely successful one, seeing how she lapses into drug addiction later in the film.
Besides, Richard's evil has nothing to do with the fact that his "inability to experience romantic love. When people praise "Richard III" the play , it's not for its character depth.
I notice I've focused more on answering the film's detractors instead of dilineating its merits; in a way, I guess this expresses how much I like it.
The cinematography, direction, and acting are all top-notch. The sets are perfect, once you realize that this is NOT historical England -- the power plant subbing for the Tower is more imposing than the real thing could ever be, and the factory ruins that serve as Bosworth Field are certainly more interested than a bunch of tanks and Jeeps roaming around the open countryside.
Shakespeare purists will, of course, hate it, but then they hate anyone who dares to put anything more than a cosmetic spin on the Bard, be it Welles' "Voodoo 'Macbeth'" or Brook's stage production of "Titus Andronicus.
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Release Dates. Official Sites. Company Credits. Technical Specs. In Parliament thanked him, granted him Cumberland as county palatine, made him hereditary warden of the western marches, and authorized him to keep whatever Scottish territory he could conquer.
A great future on the borders apparently beckoned, but he became king of England instead. Richard III Article Media Additional Info.
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Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. Lionel d'Anvers. Philippa de Clarence.
Anne Mortimer. Thomas Holland. Jeanne de Kent. Richard FitzAlan. Alice FitzAlan. Richard III. Euphemia de Clavering.