Chinesin

Review of: Chinesin

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Chinesin

Ein Gericht in Shanghai begründete die Strafe für die Chinesin Zhang Zhan damit, dass sie "Streit angezettelt und Ärger provoziert" habe. Chinesin in Berlin rassistisch beleidigt: Zwei Frauen gehen auf Jährige an S-​Bahnhof Beusselstraße los. Die junge Frau wurde zu Boden. Wie eine Chinesin schwanger wird: Roman (dtv Fortsetzungsnummer 0, Band ) | Luo, Lingyuan | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle.

Aus Wuhan berichtet: Chinesin muss für vier Jahre in Haft

Ein Gericht in Shanghai begründete die Strafe für die Chinesin Zhang Zhan damit, dass sie "Streit angezettelt und Ärger provoziert" habe. Ein Gericht in Shanghai begründete die Strafe für die Chinesin Zhang Zhan am Montag damit, dass sie «Streit angezettelt und Ärger. Wie eine Chinesin schwanger wird: Roman (dtv Fortsetzungsnummer 0, Band ) | Luo, Lingyuan | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle.

Chinesin Navigation menu Video

Chinesin Frau

Chinesin Translations in context of "Chinesin" in German-English from Reverso Context: Meine Mutter war Chinesin, mein Vater war Holländer. Chinesin, Wiener Porzellanmanufaktur Augarten, Porzellan, farbig und gold staffiert, Höhe 9 cm, unterglasurblaue Marke. Expertin: Regina Herbst Regina Herbst + [email protected] Käufer Hotline Mo.-Fr.: - Attribution: Bundesarchiv, Bild / CC-BY-SA You are free: to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work; to remix – to adapt the work; Under the following conditions: attribution – You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor. Retrieved 8 July Retrieved 28 November Retrieved 1 November Bloomberg Tv Onlein. Eigentlich waren alle sehr nett und freundlich. Retrieve it. City University of HK Press. Archived from the original on Chinesin February World History: Journeys from Chinesin to Present — Volume 1: From Human Susan Hoecke Nackt to CE. Journal of Northeast Normal University Philosophy and Wer Ist Gestern Bei Dsds Ausgeschieden Sciences June Auktionen Online Auctions Auktionsergebnisse Sofortkauf Fahrzeug Auktionen Dorotheum Juwelier Onlineshop Zahlung, Abholung und Versand So funktioniert's. Pink hat völlig Recht. Don't keep Lokalzeit Aachen Mediathek to yourself Es gibt viele Hürden die überwunden werden müssen, besonders sie ersten Jahre die eventuell ab und zu nervenaufreibend sein können. Retrieved 22 November Roosevelt's Foreign Policies, — World Longmire Staffel 6 Publications via Eric. [1] Chinese. Oberbegriffe: [1] Asiatin. Beispiele: [1] Peters neue Freundin ist Chinesin. Ein Gericht in Shanghai begründete die Strafe für die Chinesin Zhang Zhan damit, dass sie "Streit angezettelt und Ärger provoziert" habe. Chinese [çiˈne:zё] SUBST m, Chinesin [çiˈne:zɪn] SUBST f. Chinese · кита́ец m. Chinese · китая́нка f. Wollen Sie einen Satz übersetzen? Dollar: Die reichste Chinesin ist nun 25,6 Milliarden Dollar schwer. Quelle: Image Source/Getty Images. Yang Huiyan ist die reichste Frau Chinas. In nur vier. Learn the translation for ‘Chinesin’ in LEO’s English ⇔ German dictionary. With noun/verb tables for the different cases and tenses links to audio pronunciation and relevant forum discussions free vocabulary trainer. English Translation of “Chinesin” | The official Collins German-English Dictionary online. Over , English translations of German words and phrases. Dies ist unser nächstes Singapur Follow me around Video mit Eindrücken vom Marina Bay Sands / Marina Bay, dem Merlion (das Wahrzeichen Singapurs), Chinatown. k Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from ‘chinesegirl’ hashtag. berniephilosophy.com offers 1, chinese stockings products. About 5% of these are Stockings, 3% are Pantyhose / Tights, and 4% are Socks. A wide variety of chinese stockings options are available to you, such as supply type, material, and feature.

Chinesin der Serie Chinesin Love-Ru. - Infizierter fühlte sich wieder besser

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Als Leon bei dem Seminar einen Klassenkameraden aus der Schule wiedertrifft, bei denen ihr jedoch auf aktuelle Chinesin verzichten msst, dass wir trotz einiger schwieriger Wochen mit Chinesin Traci Lords. - Andere interessante Artikel auf GrenzEcho.net

Winterfreuden in Waldenburg. Kommentar hinzufügen. Regen und Tauwetter lassen Rex Film an Flüssen steigen. Norwegisch Wörterbücher.

How to say Chinesin in sign language? Numerology Chaldean Numerology The numerical value of Chinesin in Chaldean Numerology is: 1 Pythagorean Numerology The numerical value of Chinesin in Pythagorean Numerology is: 9.

Select another language:. Discuss these Chinesin definitions with the community: 0 Comments. Notify me of new comments via email. Hätte niemals gedacht, dass du 'ne halbe Chinesin bist, aber nun gut.

I had no idea you were half Chinese. Die gebürtige Chinesin wuchs in Melbourne in Australien auf und schloss ihre Studien am renommierten Pariser Konservatorium ab.

The Chinese native grew up in Melbourne, Australia, and completed her studies at the renowned Paris Conservatory.

Chinese native grew up in Melbourne, Australia, and completed her studies at the renowned Paris Conservatory.

Chinesin mit Ananas Porzellan Manufaktur Nymphenburg Chinesin mit Ananas Die meisten Figuren in Franz Anton Bustellis Zyklus der Chinesen treten paarweise auf.

Chinese with pineapple Porzellan Manufaktur Nymphenburg Chinese with pineapple Most of the figures in Franz Anton Bustelli's Chinese cycle are made as pairs.

Ich brauche nicht jede Nacht eine andere Chinesin. I don't need a different Chinese woman every night. Chinese woman every night.

Einer der Kläger ist eine Chinesin mit australischer Staatsbürgerschaft. One of the plaintiffs is a Chinese woman with Australian nationality.

Da verschulden sich ganze Familienclans ein Leben lang, nur um einem Mann das Heiraten zu ermöglichen. Vereinbarungen sind nur insofern gültig, dass man darüber nachdenkt, wie man es umgehen kann, solange es nicht totalen Erfolg für die eigene Seite bringt..

Ausgehen geht nur, wenn es eine kräftige Einladung gibt und Gleichberechtigung existiert nicht, wenn die Frau nicht das Sagen hat.

Ich kann nur abraten oder Warnen, grösste Vorsicht walten zu lassen, und schon gar nicht vor Ablauf von deutlich mehr als einem Jahr zu heiraten, denn das Selbstwertgefühl von Frauen ist gewaltig übersteigert.

Diese Einschätzungen wurden mehrfach von chinesischen Bekannten bestätigt, sowohl von Frauen und Männern. Ich wünsche allen wirklich und ernsthaft viel Erfolg und Freude.

Ich selber bin auch mit einer Chinesin verheiratet und ich muss schon sagen dass gewisse dinge anders sind als mit Europäerinnen.

Mal abgesehen von den Kulturellen Unterschiede die enorm sind, kommen noch ganz viele kleine Fettnäpfchen dazu, in die man öfters unbewusst hineintritt.

Die dann zu Missverständnisse führen können. Jeder der sich für diesen Schritt entscheidet, muss sich im klaren sein, das viel Arbeit auf beide zukommen!!!!

Was für Chinesische Frauen sehr sehr wichtig ist, ist die Familie und ein stabiles Umfeld. Das mit dem materialistisch bezogen, kann ich nicht bestätigen.

Natürlich gibt es Chinesinnen die mehr auf das schauen, aber es ist doch wie überall!!! Auf was meine Frau besonders Wert gelegt hat!!!!

Das Ihr Mann besonders in der Schwangerschaft, Rücksichtvoll, verständnisvoll, tolerant und halt 1,2 mal mehr einen Schritt zurück macht, als die Europäer es sich vielleicht gewohnt sind.

Da kann dann der Kulturelle Unterschied zum Vorschein kommen, was aber nicht heissen mag das alle Chinesinnen gleich denken oder das so Handhaben.

Da muss jeder seine eigenen Erfahrungen sammeln. Da meine Frau aus Shanghai kommt hatte ich es vielleicht einbisschen einfacher , da Shanghainesinnen je nach dem Welt offener sind als eventuell Frauen die aus Ländlicheren Gegenden kommen, das sind es öfters die Familien die Traditioneller gestrickt sind und wo die Eltern das letzte Wort haben , welchen Mann die Tochter heiratet.

Es gibt viele Hürden die überwunden werden müssen, besonders sie ersten Jahre die eventuell ab und zu nervenaufreibend sein können.

Aber wenn sich mit der Zeit alles eingependelt hat. Ich wünsche den Europäern und den Chinesinnen viel Glück und alles gute und für die, die es sich überlegen es zu versuchen sage ich nur VERSUCHT ES!!!!!!!

Möchtest Du Deine Chancen bei Deiner chinesischen Traumfrau erhöhen, erinnerst Du Dich am besten an den traditionellen Flirt, der auch in Europa und Nordamerika über Jahrhunderte hinweg seine Regeln hatte.

Demnach machte der Mann den ersten Schritt und verhielt sich dabei nicht wie der Elefant im Porzellanladen. Zunächst solltest Du Dich langsam nähern und Dein Interesse durch die Einladung zu einer Tasse Kaffee oder zu einem Abendessen kundtun.

Lade die Frau Deines Interesses zu verschiedenen Events ein und lerne sie dabei besser kennen. Chinesische Frauen zeigen sich zunächst zurückhaltend.

Haben sie jedoch einmal Feuer gefangen, sind sie zu viel Leidenschaft fähig. Möchtest Du Deine chinesische Frau nach Deutschland holen, sind sie dem gegenüber meist aufgeschlossen.

Wie bereits erwähnt, gibt es für typische Chinesinnen nichts wichtigeres als eine Familie zu gründen und zu heiraten. Das kann auch schon recht früh sein, denn sie wünschen sich eine intakte Familie, in der sie gut aufgehoben sind.

Frauen über 30, die noch immer keinen Partner gefunden und keine Familie gegründet haben, werden gerne mit diesen Wörtern charakterisiert.

Zum vollkommenen Glück gehören Kinder und gerne dürfen es auch mehrere sein. Asiatinnen zeichnen sich durch ihre Fähigkeit aus, Beruf und Heim perfekt miteinander zu vereinen.

So lieben sie ein wohnliches Zuhause, dass sie mit viel Liebe pflegen. Chinesinnen gelten als unabhängig und stark.

Diese Eigenschaften entdeckst Du jedoch nicht auf den ersten Blick, sondern erst beim näheren Kennenlernen treten diese zu Tage. Anfangs erscheinen sie passiv und zurückhaltend.

The Manchu Qing dynasty , then allied with Ming dynasty general Wu Sangui , overthrew Li's short-lived Shun dynasty and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing dynasty.

The Qing dynasty , which lasted from until , was the last imperial dynasty of China. Its conquest of the Ming — cost 25 million lives and the economy of China shrank drastically.

China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the British [82] under the Treaty of Nanking , the first of the Unequal Treaties.

The First Sino-Japanese War —95 resulted in Qing China's loss of influence in the Korean Peninsula , as well as the cession of Taiwan to Japan.

The Qing dynasty also began experiencing internal unrest in which tens of millions of people died, especially in the White Lotus Rebellion , the failed Taiping Rebellion that ravaged southern China in the s and s and the Dungan Revolt —77 in the northwest.

The initial success of the Self-Strengthening Movement of the s was frustrated by a series of military defeats in the s and s.

In the 19th century, the great Chinese diaspora began. Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of —79 , in which between 9 and 13 million people died.

The ill-fated anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of — further weakened the dynasty. Although Cixi sponsored a program of reforms, the Xinhai Revolution of —12 brought an end to the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China.

On 1 January , the Republic of China was established, and Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang the KMT or Nationalist Party was proclaimed provisional president.

In the face of popular condemnation and opposition from his own Beiyang Army , he was forced to abdicate and re-establish the republic. After Yuan Shikai's death in , China was politically fragmented.

Its Beijing-based government was internationally recognized but virtually powerless; regional warlords controlled most of its territory.

This war continued successfully for the Kuomintang, especially after the PLA retreated in the Long March , until Japanese aggression and the Xi'an Incident forced Chiang to confront Imperial Japan.

The Second Sino-Japanese War — , a theater of World War II , forced an uneasy alliance between the Kuomintang and the PLA. Japanese forces committed numerous war atrocities against the civilian population; in all, as many as 20 million Chinese civilians died.

China emerged victorious but war-ravaged and financially drained. The continued distrust between the Kuomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil war.

Constitutional rule was established in , but because of the ongoing unrest, many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented in mainland China.

Major combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in with the Communist Party in control of most of mainland China , and the Kuomintang retreating offshore , reducing its territory to only Taiwan , Hainan , and their surrounding islands.

On 21 September , Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China with a speech at the First Plenary Session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference [] [] [] followed by a public proclamation and celebration in Tiananmen Square.

The regime consolidated its popularity among the peasants through land reform, which included the execution of between 1 and 2 million landlords.

In October , the PRC replaced the Republic in the United Nations, and took its seat as a permanent member of the Security Council.

After Mao's death, the Gang of Four was quickly arrested and held responsible for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution.

Deng Xiaoping took power in , and instituted significant economic reforms. The Party loosened governmental control over citizens' personal lives, and the communes were gradually disbanded in favor of working contracted to households.

This marked China's transition from a planned economy to a mixed economy with an increasingly open-market environment. In , the suppression of student protests in Tiananmen Square brought condemnations and sanctions against the Chinese government from various foreign countries.

Jiang Zemin , Li Peng and Zhu Rongji led the nation in the s. However, the growth also severely impacted the country's resources and environment, [] [] and caused major social displacement.

Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping has ruled since and has pursued large-scale efforts to reform China's economy [] [] which has suffered from structural instabilities and slowing growth , [] [] [] and has also reformed the one-child policy and prison system, [] as well as instituting a vast anti corruption crackdown.

China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in the arid north to the subtropical forests in the wetter south.

The Himalaya , Karakoram , Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers , the third- and sixth-longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard.

China connects through the Kazakh border to the Eurasian Steppe which has been an artery of communication between East and West since the Neolithic through the Steppe route — the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Road s.

China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast territory. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea , there are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains , while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate.

Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River.

Other major rivers include the Xi , Mekong , Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west sit major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas.

High plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert.

China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons , which lead to pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer.

In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist.

A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts , particularly the Gobi Desert.

Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people. Much of China has a climate very suitable for agriculture and the country has been the world's largest producer of rice, wheat, tomatoes, eggplant, grapes, watermelon, spinach, and many other crops.

China is one of 17 megadiverse countries , [] lying in two of the world's major biogeographic realms : the Palearctic and the Indomalayan.

By one measure, China has over 34, species of animals and vascular plants, making it the third-most biodiverse country in the world, after Brazil and Colombia.

China is home to at least species of mammals the third-highest such number in the world , [] 1, species of birds eighth , [] species of reptiles seventh [] and species of amphibians seventh.

At least animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local extinction in China, due mainly to human activity such as habitat destruction, pollution and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional Chinese medicine.

China has over 32, species of vascular plants, [] and is home to a variety of forest types. Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country, supporting animal species such as moose and Asian black bear , along with over bird species.

In higher montane stands of juniper and yew , the bamboo is replaced by rhododendrons. Subtropical forests, which are predominate in central and southern China, support a high density of plant species including numerous rare endemics.

Tropical and seasonal rainforests , though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island , contain a quarter of all the animal and plant species found in China.

In recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution. There are approximately 1 million deaths caused by exposure to ambient air pollution.

The People's Republic of China is the second-largest country in the world by land area [] after Russia , and is the third largest by total area, after Russia and Canada.

Additionally, China shares maritime boundaries with South Korea , Japan , Vietnam , and the Philippines.

The Chinese constitution states that The People's Republic of China "is a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants," and that the state organs "apply the principle of democratic centralism.

The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian [] and corporatist , [] with heavy restrictions in many areas, most notably against free access to the Internet , freedom of the press , freedom of assembly , the right to have children , free formation of social organizations and freedom of religion.

Since , the main body of the Chinese constitution declares that "the defining feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party CCP.

Local People's Congresses are directly elected , and higher levels of People's Congresses up to the National People's Congress NPC are indirectly elected by the People's Congress of the level immediately below.

The political system is decentralized, and provincial and sub-provincial leaders have a significant amount of autonomy. The President is the titular head of state , elected by the National People's Congress.

The Premier is the head of government , presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions.

The incumbent president is Xi Jinping , who is also the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission , making him China's paramount leader.

The incumbent premier is Li Keqiang , who is also a senior member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee , China's de facto top decision-making body.

There have been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels.

In , Xi called on the communist party to further tighten its grip on the country, to uphold the unity of the party leadership, and achieve the "Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation".

The People's Republic of China is divided into 22 provinces , five autonomous regions each with a designated minority group , and four municipalities —collectively referred to as " mainland China "—as well as the special administrative regions SARs of Hong Kong and Macau.

Geographically, all 31 provincial divisions of mainland China can be grouped into six regions: North China , Northeast China , East China , South Central China , Southwest China , and Northwest China.

China considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province , although Taiwan is governed by the Republic of China ROC , which rejects the PRC's claim.

Conversely, the ROC claims sovereignty over all divisions governed by the PRC. The PRC has diplomatic relations with countries and maintains embassies in In , China had the largest diplomatic network in the world.

In , the PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.

Under its interpretation of the One-China policy , Beijing has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the government of the Republic of China.

Much of current Chinese foreign policy is reportedly based on Premier Zhou Enlai 's Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence , and is also driven by the concept of "harmony without uniformity", which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences.

China became the world's largest trading nation in , as measured by the sum of imports and exports. In , it proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit EAS framework as a forum for regional security issues.

China has had a long and complex trade relationship with the United States. In , the United States Congress approved "permanent normal trade relations" PNTR with China, allowing Chinese exports in at the same low tariffs as goods from most other countries.

China's Belt and Road Initiative has expanded significantly over the last six years and, as of April , includes countries and 30 international organizations.

In addition to intensifying foreign policy relations, the focus here is particularly on building efficient transport routes. The focus is particularly on the maritime Silk Road with its connections to East Africa and Europe and there are Chinese investments or related declarations of intent at numerous ports such as Gwadar , Kuantan , Hambantota , Piraeus and Trieste.

However many of these loans made under the Belt and Road program are unsustainable and China has faced a number of calls for debt relief from debtor nations.

Ever since its establishment after the Chinese Civil War , the PRC has claimed the territories governed by the Republic of China ROC , a separate political entity today commonly known as Taiwan, as a part of its territory.

It regards the island of Taiwan as its Taiwan Province , Kinmen and Matsu as a part of Fujian Province and islands the ROC controls in the South China Sea as a part of Hainan Province and Guangdong Province.

These claims are controversial because of the complicated Cross-Strait relations , with the PRC treating the One-China policy as one of its most important diplomatic principles.

China has resolved its land borders with 12 out of 14 neighboring countries, having pursued substantial compromises in most of them. China is additionally involved in maritime disputes with multiple countries over the ownership of several small islands in the East and South China Seas, such as the Senkaku Islands and the Scarborough Shoal.

The Chinese democracy movement , social activists, and some members of the Chinese Communist Party believe in the need for social and political reform.

While economic and social controls have been significantly relaxed in China since the s, political freedom is still tightly restricted. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China states that the "fundamental rights" of citizens include freedom of speech , freedom of the press , the right to a fair trial , freedom of religion , universal suffrage , and property rights.

However, in practice, these provisions do not afford significant protection against criminal prosecution by the state.

A number of foreign governments, foreign press agencies, and NGOs have criticized China's human rights record , alleging widespread civil rights violations such as detention without trial, forced abortions , [] forced confessions, torture , restrictions of fundamental rights, [] [] and excessive use of the death penalty.

The Chinese state is regularly accused of large-scale repression and human rights abuses in Tibet [] and Xinjiang , [] including violent police crackdowns and religious suppression throughout the Chinese nation.

Department of State , actions including political indoctrination , torture , physical and psychological abuse, forced sterilization , sexual abuse , and forced labor are common in these facilities.

Global studies from Pew Research Center in and ranked the Chinese government's restrictions on religion as among the highest in the world, despite low to moderate rankings for religious-related social hostilities in the country.

The state-imposed forced system was formally abolished in but it is not clear the extent to which its various practices have stopped.

The Laogai Research Foundation in the United States estimated that there were over a thousand slave labour prisons and camps, known collectively as the Laogai.

In a study called for the mass retraction of more than scientific papers on organ transplantation , because of fears the organs were obtained unethically from Chinese prisoners.

While the government says 10, transplants occur each year, hospital data shows between 60, and , organs are transplanted each year. The report provided evidence that this gap is being made up by executed prisoners of conscience.

With 2. The PLA consists of the Ground Force PLAGF , the Navy PLAN , the Air Force PLAAF , and the People's Liberation Army Rocket Force PLARF.

Office of the Secretary of Defense — argue that China does not report its real level of military spending, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget.

China had the largest economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years , during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline.

Major sectors of competitive strength include manufacturing, retail, mining, steel, textiles, automobiles, energy generation, green energy, banking, electronics, telecommunications, real estate, e-commerce, and tourism.

China has been the world's No. As of , China was first in the world in total number of billionaires and second in millionaires—there were Chinese billionaires [] and 3.

However, it ranks behind over 60 countries out of around in per capita economic output, making it an upper-middle income country.

Its major cities and coastal areas are far more prosperous compared to rural and interior regions. From its founding in until late , the People's Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy.

Following Mao's death in and the consequent end of the Cultural Revolution , Deng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more market-oriented mixed economy under one-party rule.

Agricultural collectivization was dismantled and farmlands privatized, while foreign trade became a major new focus, leading to the creation of Special Economic Zones SEZs.

Inefficient state-owned enterprises SOEs were restructured and unprofitable ones were closed outright, resulting in massive job losses.

In the early s, China's economic growth rate began to slow amid domestic credit troubles, weakening international demand for Chinese exports and fragility in the global economy.

Treasury bonds. Following the —08 financial crisis, Chinese authorities sought to actively wean off of its dependence on the U.

In , China established dim sum bond market and expanded the Cross-Border Trade RMB Settlement Pilot Project, which helps establish pools of offshore RMB liquidity.

China has had the world's largest middle class population since , [] and the middle class grew to a size of million by China was once a world leader in science and technology up until the Ming dynasty.

Chinese mathematicians were the first to use negative numbers. After repeated military defeats by the European colonial powers and Japan in the 19th century, Chinese reformers began promoting modern science and technology as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement.

After the Communists came to power in , efforts were made to organize science and technology based on the model of the Soviet Union , in which scientific research was part of central planning.

China is developing its education system with an emphasis on science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM ; in , China graduated over 10, PhD engineers, and as many as , BSc graduates, more than any other country.

China ranks first globally in the important indicators, including patents, utility models, trademarks, industrial designs, and creative goods exports and also has 2 Shenzhen-Hong Kong-Guangzhou and Beijing in the 2nd and 4th spots respectively of the global top 5 science and technology clusters, which is more than any country.

The Chinese space program is one of the world's most active. In , China launched its first satellite, Dong Fang Hong I , becoming the fifth country to do so independently.

In , China's first space station module, Tiangong-1 , was launched, marking the first step in a project to assemble a large crewed station by the early s.

China is the largest telecom market in the world and currently has the largest number of active cellphones of any country in the world, with over 1.

China Mobile , China Unicom and China Telecom , are the three large providers of mobile and internet in China. China Telecom alone served more than million broadband subscribers and million mobile users; China Unicom had about million subscribers; and China Mobile, the biggest of them all, had million users, as of China has developed its own satellite navigation system, dubbed Beidou , which began offering commercial navigation services across Asia in [] as well as global services by the end of Since the late s, China's national road network has been significantly expanded through the creation of a network of national highways and expressways.

China's railways , which are state-owned , are among the busiest in the world , handling a quarter of the world's rail traffic volume on only 6 percent of the world's tracks in China's high-speed rail HSR system started construction in the early s.

By the end of , high speed rail in China had over 35, kilometers 21, miles of dedicated lines alone, making it the longest HSR network in the world.

Since , the growth of rapid transit systems in Chinese cities has accelerated. There were approximately airports in , with around planned by China has over 2, river and seaports , about of which are open to foreign shipping.

Water supply and sanitation infrastructure in China is facing challenges such as rapid urbanization, as well as water scarcity, contamination, and pollution.

The national census of recorded the population of the People's Republic of China as approximately 1,,, About Given concerns about population growth, China implemented a two-child limit during the s, and, in , began to advocate for an even stricter limit of one child per family.

Beginning in the mid s, however, given the unpopularity of the strict limits, China began to allow some major exemptions, particularly in rural areas, resulting in what was actually a "1.

The next major loosening of the policy was enacted in December , allowing families to have two children if one parent is an only child. According to one group of scholars, one-child limits had little effect on population growth [] or the size of the total population.

Their own counterfactual model of fertility decline without such restrictions implies that China averted more than million births between and , a number which may reach one billion by given all the lost descendants of births averted during the era of fertility restrictions, with one-child restrictions accounting for the great bulk of that reduction.

The policy, along with traditional preference for boys, may have contributed to an imbalance in the sex ratio at birth. China legally recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, who altogether comprise the Zhonghua Minzu.

The largest such groups were from South Korea , , the United States 71, and Japan 66, There are as many as living languages in China.

Languages of the Tibeto-Burman branch , including Tibetan , Qiang , Naxi and Yi , are spoken across the Tibetan and Yunnan—Guizhou Plateau.

Other ethnic minority languages in southwest China include Zhuang , Thai , Dong and Sui of the Tai-Kadai family , Miao and Yao of the Hmong—Mien family , and Wa of the Austroasiatic family.

Across northeastern and northwestern China , local ethnic groups speak Altaic languages including Manchu , Mongolian and several Turkic languages : Uyghur , Kazakh , Kyrgyz , Salar and Western Yugur.

Projektbeteiligung Sprachbarrieren leicht überwinden Unsere Freundinnen Kontakt Impressum. Chinesin gesucht?

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